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Lesson # Mark 3:18f
Study Material - Mark 3:18f
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18 And [kai] Andrew [Andreas] , and [kai] Philip [Philippos] , and [kai] Bartholomew [Bartholomaios] , and [kai] Matthew [Matthaios] , and [kai] Thomas [Thomas] , and [kai] James [Iakobos] the son [ho] of Alphaeus [Alphaios] , and [kai] Thaddaeus [Thaddaios] , and [kai] Simon [Simon] the Canaanite [Kananites] , KJV-Interlinear
18 and Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Zealot; NAS
The ninth and tenth Apostles listed in this chapter are James son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus. I am combining these two apostles together in this study because they are relatively short, but also, they are confusing and leave an unclear history of these two men. There is a good reason for this historical confusion, and we will get to that after finishing all of the apostles
These articles are from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia:
'James the son of Alphaeus (ho tou Alphaiou; for etymology, etc., of James, see above): One of the Twelve Apostles (Matt 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13). By Matthew and Mark he is coupled with Thaddaeus, and by Luke and Acts with Simon Zelotes. As Matthew or Levi is also called the son of Alphaeus (compare Matt 9:9; Mark 2:14), it is possible that he and James were brothers. According to the Genealogies of the Apostles (compare Budge, Contendings of the Apostles, II, 50), James was of the house of Gad. The Martyrdom of St. James, the son of Alphaeus (compare Budge, ib, 264-66) records that James was stoned by the Jews for preaching Christ, and was 'buried by the Sanctuary In Jerusalem.'
This James is generally identified with James the Little or the Less, the brother of Joses (Mk. 6:3) and son of Mary (Matt 27:56; Mark 15:40). In John 19:25 this Mary is called the wife of Cleophas (the King James Version) or Clopas (Revised Version), who is thus in turn identified with Alphaeus. There is evidence in apocryphal literature of a Simon, a son of Clopas, who was also one of the disciples. If this be the same as Simon Zelotes, it would explain why he and James (i.e. as being brothers) were coupled together in the apostolic lists of Luke and Acts. Some have applied the phrase 'his mother's sister' in John 19:25 to Mary the wife of Clopas, instead of to a separate person, and have thus attempted to identify James the son of Alphaeus with James the brother of Our Lord. Most agree that these are two separate James'.'
'THADDAEUS (tha-de'-us) (Thaddaios): One of the Twelve Apostles (Matt 10:3; Mark 3:18). In Matt 10:3 the King James Version, the reading is 'Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus.' The name corresponds to Judas, the son (RV), or brother (the King James Version), of James, given in the lists of Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13.
The 'Gospel of the Ebionites,' or 'Gospel of the Twelve Apostles,' of the 2 nd century and mentioned by Origen, narrates that Thaddaeus was also among those who received their call to follow Jesus at the Sea of Tiberias (compare Matt 4:18-22).
According to the 'Genealogies of the Twelve Apostles' (compare Budge, Contendings of the Apostles, II, 50), Thaddaeus was of the house of Joseph; according to the 'Book of the Bee' he was of the tribe of Judah. There is abundant testimony in apocryphal literature of the missionary activity of a certain Thaddaeus in Syria, but doubt exists as to whether this was the apostle. Thus:
(1) according to the 'Acts of St. Peter' (compare Budge, II, 466 ff) Peter appointed Thaddaeus over the island of Syria and Edessa.
(2) The 'Preaching of the blessed Judas, the brother of our Lord, who was surnamed Thaddaeus' (Budge, 357 ff), describes his mission in Syria and in Dacia, and indicates him as one of the Twelve.
(3) The 'Acta Thaddaei' (compare Tischendorf, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, 1851, 261 ff) refers to this Thaddaeus in the text as one of the Twelve, but in the heading as one of the Seventy.
(4) The Abgar legend, dealing with a supposed correspondence between Abgar, king of Syria, and Christ, states in its Syriac form, as translated by Eusebius (HE, I, xiii, 6-22) (compare THOMAS), that 'after the ascension of Christ, Judas, who was also called Thomas, sent to Abgar the apostle Thaddaeus, one of the Seventy' (compare Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen, 76 ff). Jerome, however, identifies this same Thaddaeus with Lebbaeus and 'Judas .... of James' of Luke (Luke 6:16). Hennecks (op. cit., 473, 474) surmises that in the original form of the Abgar legend Thomas was the central figure, but that through the influence of the later 'Acts of Thomas', which required room to be made for Thomas' activity in India, a later Syriac recension was made, in which Thomas became merely the sender of Thaddaeus to Edessa, and that this was the form which Eusebius made use of in his translation According to Phillips (compare Phillips, The Doctrine of Addai the Apostle), who quotes Zahn in support, the confusion may be due to the substitution of the Greek name Thaddaeus for the name Addai of the Syriac MSS.
The general consensus seems to indicate, however, that both Thomas and Thaddaeus the apostle had some connection with Edessa. Of the various identifications of Thaddaeus with other Biblical personages which might be inferred from the foregoing, that with 'Judas .... of James' is the only one that has received wide acceptance.
The burial place of Thaddaeus is variously placed at Beirut and in Egypt. A 'Gospel of Thaddaeus' is mentioned in the Decree of Gelasius.'
End of the articles.
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End Of Lesson
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